3D reconstruction of the Temple of Hephaestos in the Agora of ancient Athens (450-420 BCE).

On top of Agoraios Kolonos hill, which is delimiting the Ancient Agora of Athens, and to the west, stands the temple of the Olympian God Hephaestos, formerly known as "Thesseion". It is one of the best preserved ancient temples. According to the traveler and geographer Pausanias two deities were jointly worshiped in the temple: Hephaestos, protector of all metallurgists, and Athena Ergani, protecting all potters and the cottage industries. The identification of this temple as Hephaesteion (location of worship of the god Hephaestus) was ascertained by the excavations and investigations that brought to light metallurgy workshops on the wider area of the hill, thus outshining earlier opinions presuming that Thesseus, Hercules or Ares (Mars) were the deities worshiped there. The temple was probably erected between 460 and 420 BC by a yet unknown architect, to whom, however, other temples of similar structure in the Attica region are attributed.