alicarnassus (Greek Ἁλικαρνασσός): Greek-Carian city, modern Bodrum in southwestern Turkey. TheMausoleum, the tomb of a ruler named Maussolus, was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Maussolus, the satrap of Caria, refounded Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum in southwestern Turkey) and made it his capital. In the Greek world, it was not unusual that a city founder (ktistes) received cultic honors and a tomb on the central square of the new town, and this also happened to Maussolus. After his death in 353 BCE, his wifeArtemisia succeeded him and invited Greek artists to build a fitting tomb. The result was not just a fitting monument, it was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Although the mausoleum itself was constructed of bricks, this was covered with splendid white Proconnesian marble. The impressive monument was copied on several occasions. It is likely that the tomb of Alexander the Great inAlexandria and the Belevi Mausoleum were inspired by the building in Halicarnassus, which was known as the mausoleum. The building was designed by the famous architects Satyrus and Pytheos, who were inspired by traditional Anatolian and Greek architecture (cf. the Monument of the Nereids in Xanthus) and later wrote a book on the monument they had created. This book was known to Roman authors like Pliny the Elder, who offers a description of the Mausoleum hof Halicarnassus. He says that four famous sculptors were involved: Scopas, Bryaxis, Timotheus, and Leochares, who were responsible for the decoration on the east, north, south, and west side. They made brilliant reliefs of an Amazonomachy, i.e. a battle between Greek warriors and Amazons. Pliny says: Before their task was completed, Queen Artemisia died. The four sculptors did not leave their work, however, until it was finished, considering that it was at once a memorial of their own fame and of the sculptor's art. And, to this day even, it is undecided which of them has excelled.